Anemia with Inadequate Iron Supply
Most commonly known in the realm of medicine as Iron — Deficiency Anemia, is a medical disorder that arises when iron storage in relation to the production of RBC (Red Blood Cell) falls below the optimal requirement. The body’s systematic iron homeostasis regulates the production and usage of iron thus maintaining the balance of the iron intake and output.
A low level of iron production is the attribute that defines iron deficiency. When there is an insufficient supply of iron that causes scarcity in the process of erythrocytes reproduction, this results in iron deficiency Anemia.
How does the inadequate iron supply come about?
The importance and role of iron in the biology of organisms are very essential to the perpetuation of life. It is imperative to the transportation of electrons and oxygen, synthesizing of DNA, and processes such as metabolism.
The total amount of body iron loss is more passive in contrast with the body iron absorption, however of equal significance in maintaining Iron homeostasis.
The regulation of body iron concentration and balancing of iron absorption and loss is carried out by the absorptive cells aligning the proximal small intestine thus an approximate amount of 60ppm body iron concentration is regulated ideally in a normally functioning individual. Consequently, an imbalance in the body's iron absorption and loss will thus eventuate in the likelihood of iron- deficiency anemia or conversely an excessive build-up of iron deposits in organ tissues which can be very fatal.
Other cause of IDA includes Dietary Factors
The type of food consumed has been a common factor in the possibility of Iron Deficiency Anemia. The likelihood of IDA is less in places that deem meat as a valuable asset to their daily diet since the heme iron group is majorly generated by the high incorporation of meat in the diet. Therefore, Iron deficiency anemia is more prevalent in places that settle for a less meat-incorporated diet.
How IDA is diagnosed
In order to identify the possibility, the severity of IDA, a Complete Blood Count has to be performed with findings as follows;
• Chronic iron deficiency anemia- Both mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) will give values lower than the normal performing lab test range. This indicates microcytic and hypochromic erythropoiesis.
• A peripheral smear is performed- This would clearly show the appearance of the microcytosis in the smear way before the decrease in mean corpuscular volume hence the production of low iron supply.
• Utilizing and evaluating the total binding capacity of Serums Iron and Ferritin- Low levels of both serums coupled with an elevated TIBC indicate Iron deficiency. Patients who have iron deficiency while simultaneously having an underlying disease such as hepatitis result in normal ferritin serums levels this helps make the distinction between iron deficiency anemia and microcytic form anemias.
Iron restoration. The simplest and cost-effective way to go about treating iron deficiency anemia is the usage of Oral ferrous iron salts, especially the commonly used ferrous sulfate salts. Take into account proper management of hemorrhage which may include the prospect of surgical treatments to reduce the possibility of recurrence.
Take into consideration intervention of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases, especially of the lungs, uterus, and both gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary tract. And finally encouraging inclusion of nonheme iron diets as carried out by certain areas of places around the world.
How IDA can be treated
Promote awareness of Iron deficiency anemia to both patients and caregivers
‣ Invest time in clarifying the significance of all diagnostic procedures- most especially CBC, bone marrow aspiration, and the possible visit to a specialist (Hematologist)
‣ Mineral supplementation, in this case, Iron supplements should be highly encouraged and properly explained
‣ Promote iron-incorporated diet- encourage the patient to invest money in iron-rich food (leafy greens, beans, poultry and meat, etc.)
○ Assess for local or systemic signs of infection, such as fever, chills, swelling, pain, and body malaise.
○ Make sure all the typical manifestation of infection is thoroughly assessed, for instance, malaise chills, fever, lumps (swollen lymph nodes)
○ Careful observation White blood cells monitor the if and when antibiotics, antivirals, and antifungals are needed for administration.
○ Advice physical distancing with infected individuals.
○ A daily routine of proper hygiene such as moth and perineal care should be highly encouraged.